Malaria remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Burundi. In 2016, the number of malaria cases reached 8.3 million, out of a population of 11 million. The malaria epidemic is concentrated in the eastern, central, and northern parts of the country. The most important determinant of this situation is an increase in the number of vectors transmitting malaria. Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) is only conducted in a few selected districts and mosquito net utilization is low, at 24% pregnant women in key provinces (DHS 2016). The previous mass distribution of mosquito nets was in mid-2014. Since October 2017, following the mass distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) funded by Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM) with support from USAID, malaria caseloads are 50% lower than 2016 and 22% lower than 2015. The monitoring of mosquito populations and behaviors are critical for evidence-based planning to control malaria in Burundi.

In 2020-2021, PMI VectorLink will continue to support the NMCP to conduct entomological monitoring, insecticide resistance monitoring, ITN durability monitoring, and provide IRS technical assistance in the country. The project’s primary objective is to strengthen the national capacity in vector surveillance. The support includes technical assistance; a collection of data on vector species composition, behavior, and susceptibility to the main classes of insecticides used in vector control; the operationalization of nine sentinel sites; and development of national human resources for entomological surveillance.

Insectary and Laboratory Activities         

  • Support the NMCP to manage the insectary, maintain the mosquito colonies;
  • Ensure all activities in the insectary follow standard protocols;
  • Transfer technical skills and insectary management to the NMCP.

Field Activities

  • Conduct insecticide susceptibility tests on mosquitoes collected from one site per each of the nine provinces, for a total of nine sites. The following insecticides will be tested, in order of priority: clothianidin+Deltamethrin, pirimiphos-methyl, deltamethrin, deltamethrin+PBO, permethrin, permethrin+PBO, alpha-cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin+PBO, chlorfenapyr and bendiocarb.
  • In collaboration with the NMCP, support capacity building of health centers with entomological monitoring activities and reporting at sentinel sites with regular support in two of the existing sentinel sites (Mpanda and Mutaho). At Mpanda, vector density is high leading to a high workload for two technicians at Mutaho (the new sentinel site), the technicians need more experience to run activities at sentinel site. The support to all other sites will be limited to the provision of material and consumables, per diem and remote technical support.
  • Support the NMCP in field entomological data collection to ensure a complete data set that will inform decision making on program activities for upcoming years.
  • Monitor the insecticide (Fludora Fusion) decay rate through cone bioassay tests at Muyinga and Kiremba where IRS is implemented with Global Fund support.
  • Implement 12-month durability monitoring survey of ITNs through PSI in Vumbi and Gashoho districts.

National-Level Support

  • Support the NMCP in planning and implementation, data collection, protocol/guideline development for IRS.
  • Contribute to the training of a national pool of IRS supervisors.
  • Train and support NMCP technicians in entomological surveillance techniques of malaria vectors.
  • Strengthen skills on data management, insectary management, and entomological monitoring at the sentinel sites through on-the-job-training and coaching.
  • Train and support NMCP leadership on reporting and using vector control data for decision-making at the national level