Rwanda has made remarkable progress in the fight against malaria. All major malaria indicators have decreased significantly from 2005 to 2012. Rwanda’s health management information system reported an 86 percent reduction in malaria incidence, an 87 percent reduction in malaria morbidity, a 74 percent reduction in malaria mortality, and a 71 percent reduction in malaria test positivity rate. The national malaria control program has an ambitious vision of a Rwanda free from malaria and is aiming to achieve malaria pre-elimination status nationwide by 2018.
In September 2019 and January 2020, through VectorLink Rwanda, IRS was conducted in three districts, targeting 304,798 structures, using Fludora Fusion insecticide, a clothianidin/deltamethrin combination. Spraying was conducted on September 2-27 in Nyagatare and Kirehe Districts, and on January 20 up to February 11, 2020, in Ngoma District. The Spray operators found 226,170 structures in Nyagatare and Kirehe districts, and sprayed 221,719, for a coverage rate of 98%. The IRS spray campaign in Ngoma commenced on 20 January and ended on 11 February 2020. During the twenty-day spray campaign in Ngoma District, spray operators found more structures (93,603) than the original target of 89,331 structures and sprayed 92,805 which is 99.2% spray coverage.
Rwanda has 15 districts with high malaria burden. In 2019, the Government of Rwanda and its IRS partners (the Global Fund and PMI) were able to spray 12 out of these 15 districts.
In its third year, the project will conduct IRS in three districts: Kirehe and Nyagatare (from August 24, 2020), and Ngoma (from January 18, 2021), and will provide capacity-building support to the national and district governments to help them plan and implement quality IRS in the future. Figure 1 below shows the IRS target districts for Year 3 and other vector control interventions in Rwanda’s districts.
In addition to spraying, in Year 3 the project will carry out the following activities:
- Build capacity at the national, regional, district, and local levels to manage IRS operations, including planning, spraying, resource allocation, monitoring and evaluation (M&E), and entomological monitoring and quality controls.
- Support ITN durability monitoring of dual AI (Interceptor G2), PBO (PermaNet 3.0), and standard (Yahe, Olyset) nets implemented by the Government of Rwanda.
- Collaborate with districts on prioritizing implementation of activities in their IRS exit/sustainability plans, which the previous project helped to develop.
- Conduct training with a focus on IRS supervision and spray techniques to improve the overall quality of spraying.
- Conduct regular M&E of project activities to ensure alignment with set targets and objectives.
- Mainstream gender equality and female empowerment by ensuring women’s participation in various project activities, such as spray operations, supervision, and pump maintenance.
- Involve youth in spray activities in the target districts. The project will recruit youth as team leaders to train spray operators and supervise spray quality at the household level. The project will also recruit the head of the village and the in-charge of security to sensitize the community in their villages during spraying.
- Carry out a logistics assessment in all PMI-funded IRS districts, and arrange all procurement, shipping, delivery, and storage of IRS commodities.
- Strengthen the IRS logistics and warehousing system through enhanced training and supervision.
- Coordinate community mobilization activities in collaboration with stakeholders to raise awareness of IRS and to encourage beneficiary and stakeholder ownership.
- Conduct insecticide resistance, wall bioassay, vector density monitoring, and behavioral studies.
- Collaborate with other implementing partners—the government of Rwanda/Global Fund in the 12 districts—to complement each other’s work and ensure no duplication of efforts.
- Ensure safe and correct insecticide application, thus minimizing human and environmental exposure to IRS insecticides, in compliance with the Pesticide Evaluation Report and Safer Use Action Plan and Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA).
- Conduct environmental compliance assessments (Environmental Audit and Environmental Social and Impact Assessment) in consultation with PMI and the National Environmental Management Authority.
- Prepare a Letter Report at least two months prior to the spray campaign.