PMI has supported entomological monitoring in Nigeria since 2012. The PMI AIRS project conducted monitoring along with IRS implementation in Nasarawa in 2012 and 2013. In 2014, monitoring expanded to six sites (Enugu, Lagos, Nasarawa, Plateau, Rivers, and Sokoto). In 2016, Akwa Ibom, Bauchi, Ebonyi, and Oyo replaced Enugu, Lagos, Rivers, and Plateau, while monitoring continued in Nasarawa and Sokoto. Through AIRS and then VectorLink, entomological monitoring continued at these six sites in 2017 and 2018. In Year 2 of VectorLink Nigeria (October 2018-September 2019), longitudinal monitoring of vector bionomics continued in the six sites and began in a seventh site (Plateau). The project performed insecticide resistance monitoring in all seven PMI-supported sites, plus four new sites: Benue, Zamfara, Cross River, and Kebbi. In addition, the Global Fund has supported vector surveillance and insecticide resistance monitoring in Kano, Niger, and Osun since 2018, and added Kwara and Adamawa as insecticide resistance monitoring sites in 2019, with technical assistance from VectorLink entomologists.

VectorLink Nigeria’s recent entomological surveillance and insecticide resistance monitoring data has highlighted an urgent need to develop and implement appropriate resistance management strategies in areas with high-intensity resistance. In particular, the data collected helped guide PMI’s decision to procure and deploy piperonyl butoxide (PBO) nets in Ebonyi in 2019 to combat resistant malaria vectors with proven metabolic resistance mechanisms. In June 2019, VectorLink began collecting monthly longitudinal monitoring for vector bionomics and conducting annual insecticide susceptibility tests, in an additional three local government areas (LGAs) in Ebonyi to provide baseline data for evaluation of the impact of the PBO nets.

In its third year, the project will conduct longitudinal monitoring of vector bionomics in five sites (Akwa Ibom, Ebonyi, Oyo, Plateau, and Sokoto) and will monitor insecticide resistance in 11 total sites—the five aforementioned sites plus an additional six sites (Bauchi, Benue, Cross River, Kebbi, Nasarawa, and Zamfara). The project will also provide capacity-building support to the national and district governments to plan and implement quality entomological monitoring. In addition to monitoring entomological and epidemiological indicators in relation to the PBO net distribution in Ebonyi, VectorLink Nigeria proposes to collect entomological data to inform the monitoring of the PBO and Interceptor G2 net distribution that PMI will support in Oyo in 2020.

In 2019-2020, VectorLink Nigeria will work with the National Malaria Elimination Program (NMEP), the Nigerian Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), State Malaria Elimination Programs (SMEPs) and Principal Investigators to monitor vector bionomics (longitudinally), insecticide resistance, and the programmatic impact of the distribution of next-generation nets in Ebonyi and Oyo.

Field Activities

  • Conduct monthly longitudinal vector surveillance in five sentinel sites across the major ecological zones of Nigeria, to measure vector species composition, density, distribution, seasonality, and behavior, as well as sporozoite infection rate, parity, and blood meal sources.
  • Conduct insecticide resistance testing on Anopheles gambiael. in 11 sites. The following insecticides will be tested, in order of priority: permethrin (0.75%), deltamethrin (0.05%), alpha-cypermethrin (0.05%), chlorfenapyr (100 µg/ml), pirimiphos-methyl (0.25%), and clothianidin. Pyrethroid insecticides will also be tested with and without the synergist PBO.
  • Continue to collect data on entomological indicators from expansion sites in Ebonyi; set up sites in one LGA each in Oyo to monitor the impact of IG2 and PBO nets (that will be distributed in 2020) on entomological indicators.
  • Develop a program monitoring dashboard to assess the epidemiological and entomological impact of next-generation nets distributed in Ebonyi.

Insectary and Laboratory Activities

  • Manage the Nasarawa State University insectary and laboratory in Keffi in support of the project’s capacity building objectives, and provide support on the correct identification of samples from sentinel sites and testing of technical grade insecticides.
  • Collaborate with NIMR to conduct molecular analysis on mosquito samples.

National-Level Support

  • Support the NMEP in updating the National Insecticide Resistance Management plan.
  • Facilitate review of entomological monitoring data with stakeholders to inform and improve integrated decision-making on vector control; share entomological data and tools for collection and management.
  • Facilitate a refresher training on basic morphological identification skills and malaria entomological methods for entomology technicians based on results of skills assessment conducted during supervisory visits.
  • Transfer skills needed for data management and entomological monitoring at the sentinel sites through on-the-job training and coaching provided during supportive supervision visits.
  • Support NMEP in the development of an annual entomology report for vector control decision-making at the national level.

Success stories from PMI VectorLink Nigeria:

Building Capacity for Surveillance