PMI has supported entomological monitoring in Nigeria since 2012. The PMI AIRS project conducted entomological monitoring along with an IRS pilot in Nasarawa in 2012 and 2013. In 2014, monitoring expanded to six sites (Enugu, Jigawa, Lagos, Nasarawa, Plateau and Rivers) and to Sokoto and Jigawa in 2015. In 2016, Akwa Ibom, Bauchi, Ebonyi, and Oyo replaced Enugu, Lagos, Rivers, and Plateau, and monitoring continued in Nasarawa and Sokoto. Through AIRS and then VectorLink, entomological monitoring continued at these six sites in 2017 and 2018. In year two of the VectorLink project, longitudinal monitoring of vector bionomics continued in the six sites as well as in Plateau. The project also performed insecticide resistance monitoring in all seven PMI-focus sites as well as Benue, Zamfara, Cross River, and Kebbi. From October 2019 to September 2020 (year three of the project), VectorLink conducted entomological monitoring in 11 sites—monthly vector surveillance and longitudinal monitoring was conducted in five sites (Akwa Ibom, Ebonyi, Oyo, Plateau, and Sokoto), while insecticide resistance monitoring only was done in Bauchi, Benue, Cross River, Kebbi, Nasarawa, and Zamfara. Monthly surveillance has continued in the 11 sites during year four (October 2020-September 2021). In addition to the six sites where insecticide resistance monitoring was conducted in 2020, the project added four non-PMI-focus sites (Bayelsa, Enugu, and Federal Capital Territory Abuja, and Bonny Island in Rivers State) in 2021.

Results from VectorLink Nigeria’s entomological surveillance and insecticide resistance monitoring activities have highlighted an urgent need to develop and implement appropriate insecticide resistance management strategies in areas with high intensity of resistance. In particular, the data collected helped guide PMI’s decision to procure and deploy piperonyl butoxide (PBO) nets in Ebonyi (2019) and Oyo (2020) and Interceptor G2 (IG2) nets in Oyo (2021) and Kebbi (2022) to combat resistant malaria vectors with metabolic resistance mechanisms.

In year five (October 2021 – September 2022), the PMI VectorLink Nigeria project will continue to work with the National Malaria Elimination Program (NMEP), the Nigerian Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), State Malaria Elimination Programs (SMEPs), and PIs in Nigerian Universities to monitor trends in vector bionomics (longitudinally), insecticide resistance, and the programmatic impact of the distribution of next-generation nets in Kebbi and Sokoto States. Key objectives include:

Field Activities

  • Conduct monthly longitudinal vector surveillance in seven sentinel sites (six PMI-focus states and one non-PMI-focus state) to measure vector species composition, density, distribution, seasonality, and behavior, as well as sporozoite infection rate, parity, and blood meal sources.
  • Conduct insecticide resistance testing on Anopheles gambiael. in 16 sites (11 PMI-focus and five non-PMI-focus states).
  • Continue to collect entomological data from IG2 and PBO net monitoring sites in Kebbi and Sokoto States, respectively.
  • Conduct a survey to determine the feasibility of implementing larval source management (LSM) as a supplementary approach in Kebbi State, which has the highest malaria burden in the country.
  • Transition all entomological data collection, management, and analysis for VectorLink Nigeria-supported sites to VectorLink Collect, a District Health Information Software Version 2 (DHIS2)-based system.

Insectary and Laboratory Activities

  • Manage the Nasarawa State University insectary and laboratory in Keffi in support of the project’s capacity building objectives, supporting accurate sample identification and testing of technical grade insecticides.
  • Provide technical guidance and facilitatory support to Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) laboratory in Bonny Island, to support their interest in expanding their entomological testing capabilities.
  • Collaborate with NIMR to conduct molecular analysis on mosquito samples identified in Keffi laboratory.
  • Share all entomological data collected with NIMR for storage and management.
  • Support the training of technicians and PIs implementing field activities.

Capacity Building at National and State Levels

  • Facilitate the review of entomological monitoring data with stakeholders to inform and improve decision-making on vector control.
  • Provide technical expertise during the planned refresher training organized by the NMEP on basic morphological identification and entomological methods for entomology technicians.
  • Collaborate with the NMEP, NIMR, and other malaria partners to derive aggregates from a standard list of entomological indicators measured by all partners conducting entomological activities in Nigeria and monitored via dashboards within the National Malaria Data Repository (NMDR).
  • Support the NMEP to develop a national annual entomology report for vector control decision-making.
  • Support the NMEP in the local and international procurement of materials required for insecticide resistance management (IRM) activities in GF-focus sites.

Streamlined Durability and Program Monitoring

  • Support the NMEP in conducting pre-distribution bioassays on a sample of IG2 ITNs withdrawn from those planned for distribution in Kebbi State in 2022, as a first step in streamlined ITN durability monitoring. Additional preparatory activities for the first fieldwork round 12 months after distribution (tentatively in early 2023) will also be conducted in Year 5, including finalization of the study protocol, training materials and questionnaire, and seeking appropriate IRB approvals.
  • Complete the monitoring of the PBO ITN distribution conducted in November 2019 in Ebonyi to estimate the impact on key entomological and epidemiological indicators including confirmed case incidence, updating the dashboards and conducting an interrupted time series analysis to assess the impact of the PBO ITNs two years before and two years after the PBO ITN campaign.
  • Analyze and develop a baseline presentation summarizing entomological and epidemiological data prior to IG2 and PBO ITN distributions in Kebbi and Sokoto States, respectively, as part of the ongoing program monitoring activity.

Success stories from PMI VectorLink Nigeria:

Building Capacity for Surveillance