PMI has supported entomological monitoring in Nigeria since 2012. The PMI AIRS project conducted monitoring along with IRS implementation in Nasarawa in 2012 and 2013. In 2014, monitoring expanded to six sites (Enugu, Lagos, Nasarawa, Plateau, Rivers, and Sokoto). In 2016, Akwa Ibom, Bauchi, Ebonyi, and Oyo replaced Enugu, Lagos, Rivers, and Plateau, while monitoring continued in Nasarawa and Sokoto. Through AIRS and then VectorLink, entomological monitoring continued at these six sites in 2017 and 2018. In Year 2 of VectorLink Nigeria (October 2018-September 2019), longitudinal monitoring of vector bionomics continued in the six sites and began in a seventh site (Plateau). The project performed insecticide resistance monitoring in all seven PMI-supported sites, plus four new sites: Benue, Zamfara, Cross River, and Kebbi. In addition, the Global Fund has supported vector surveillance and insecticide resistance monitoring in Kano, Niger, and Osun since 2018, and added Kwara and Adamawa as insecticide resistance monitoring sites in 2019, with technical assistance from VectorLink entomologists.

VectorLink Nigeria’s recent entomological surveillance and insecticide resistance monitoring data has highlighted an urgent need to develop and implement appropriate resistance management strategies in areas with high-intensity resistance. In particular, the data collected helped guide PMI’s decision to procure and deploy piperonyl butoxide (PBO) nets in Ebonyi in 2019 to combat resistant malaria vectors with proven metabolic resistance mechanisms. In June 2019, VectorLink began collecting monthly longitudinal monitoring for vector bionomics and conducting annual insecticide susceptibility tests, in an additional three local government areas (LGAs) in Ebonyi to provide baseline data for evaluation of the impact of the PBO nets.

In Year 4, the PMI VectorLink Nigeria project will work with the National Malaria Elimination Program (NMEP), the Nigerian Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), State Malaria Elimination Programs (SMEPs), and PIs in Nigerian Universities to monitor vector bionomics (longitudinally), insecticide resistance, and the programmatic impact of the distribution of next-generation nets in Oyo.

Insectary and Laboratory Activities

  • Manage the Nasarawa State University insectary and laboratory in Keffi in support of the project’s capacity building objectives, and provide support on correct identification of samples from sentinel sites and testing of technical grade insecticides.
  • Collaborate with NIMR to conduct molecular analysis on mosquito samples identified in Keffi laboratory.
  • Share all entomological data collected with NIMR for storage and management.
  • Support the training of Technicians and PIs implementing field activities

Field Activities

  • Conduct monthly longitudinal vector surveillance in five sentinel sites across the major ecological zones of Nigeria, to measure vector species composition, density, distribution, seasonality, and behavior, as well as sporozoite infection rate, parity, and blood meal sources.
  • Conduct insecticide resistance testing on Anopheles gambiael. in 15 sites (11 PMI-focused states and 4 non-PMI-focused states).
  • Continue to collect entomological data from expanded PBO nets monitoring sites in Ebonyi.

National-Level Support

  • Support the NMEP in updating the National Insecticide Resistance Management plan.
  • Facilitate review of entomological monitoring data with stakeholders to inform and improve decision -making on vector control.
  • Serve as resource during the planned refresher training on basic morphological identification and entomological methods for entomology technicians to be organized by the NMEP.
  • Transfer skills needed for data management and entomological monitoring at the sentinel sites through on-the-job training and coaching provided during supportive supervision visits.
  • Support NMEP in the development of an annual entomology report for vector control decision-making at the national level.
  • Support NMEP in the local and international procurement of materials required for insecticide resistance management (IRM) activities in GF-focused sites.

ITN Activities

  • Continue to monitor PBO ITN distribution conducted in 2019 in Ebonyi to estimate the impact on key entomological and epidemiological indicators including confirmed case incidence.
  • Support the NMEP in conducting the baseline round of ITN durability monitoring in two states (Nasarawa and Oyo) which will distribute ITNs in 2021. The baseline round is the first of four rounds (total of 36-months) of data collection to be conducted for this study and is the only round to be conducted during Year 4 of the project.

Success stories from PMI VectorLink Nigeria:

Building Capacity for Surveillance